PhD references

Publications and science articles

  • Still G. K. New Computer system can predict human behaviour response to building fires. Fire 84 (January 1993), 40-41
  • Still G. K. Towering Inferno New Scientist (Supplement April 1993).
  • Still G. K. New Insights into Crowd Behaviour - It's Fractal. Focus November (1994).
  • Still G. K. Simulating Egress using Virtual Reality - a perspective view of simulation and design. IMAS Fire Safety on Ships symposium (May 1994).
  • Still G. K. The Secret Life of crowds. Focus (June 1996)
  • Still G. K. Last word, mind the gap. New Scientist (March 20th 1999).
  • Reynolds, L. Fielden, I, Still, G.K, Stewart, I. "Wirequakes - a question of seismology" with Len Reynolds and Ian Stewart - a paper comparing earth and wire quakes (Wire Industry, December 1999).
  • Still G.K Crowd Dynamics. PhD Thesis, Mathematics department, Warwick University. (August 2000)
  • Still GK Optimising Office Egress. Web based publication (Sept 2001)
  • Feature. "Agincourt" Chapter in book "Battlefield Detectives" ISBN 0-233-05083-3
  • Still G. K. "Understanding Crowd Dynamics - The Main Event(Nov 2005)
  • Still G. K. "Review of Pedestrian and Evacuation Simulation" Journal of Critical Infrastructures (2007)
  • Feature "Crowds" BBC Focus (April 2009)
  • Feature "Understanding Crowd Dynamics" ACPO Magazine (June 2009)
  • Feature "The Mathematics of Crowd Dynamics" iSquared, Institute of Mathematics Magazine, (June 2009)
  • Feature "Crowd Dynamics" Mensa Magazine (June 2009)
  • Feature "The Course of Change..." UK Cabinet Office Emergency Planning College publication (2011)
  • Feature "Crowd Dynamics" Urban Realm (April 2011)
  • More recent articles and publications - click here.

[1] The Green Guide (Third Edition). Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds. HMSO London. 1990. (ISBN 0113410018)

[2] The Green Guide (Fourth Edition). Guide to Safety at Sports Grounds. HMSO London. 1997 (ISBN 0113000952)

[3] The Purple Guide (First Edition). Guide to Health, Safety and Welfare at Pop Concerts and similar Events. HMSO London. 1993. (ISBN 0113410727)

[4] The Purple Guide (Second Edition).The Event Safety Guide. A Guide to Health, Safety and Welfare at Pop Concerts and similar Events. HMSO London. 1999. (ISBN 0113410727)

[5] The Primrose Guide (called so because it has a yellow cover). Guide to fire precautions in existing places of entertainment and like premises. HMSO London. 1998 (ISBN 0113409079)

[6] Fruin, J. 
Pedestrian and Planning Design. Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners. 1971. Library of Congress catalogue number 70-159312 (Elevator World Inc. Educational Services Division. PO Box 6507, 354 Morgan Avenue, Mobile, Alabama 36606))

[7] Ando, K. Aoki, T, Oto, H. Improvement of the simulation System for Passenger flow. Quarterly review of the Rail Technical Research Institute Report. Japan (In Japanese) Spring 1991 (see [10])

[8] Ando, K. Aoki, T, Oto, H. Development of the prediction System for Passenger Flow. Quarterly Review of the Rail Technical Research Institute Report. Japan (In Japanese) Spring 1992 (see [10])

[9] Aoki, T. The simulation system of passenger flow. Quarterly Review of Rail Technical Research Institute Vol 35 No 2 May 1994.

[10] Private communication between Keith Still and Toshiyuki Aoki (Chief Research, Architecture Lab) and Hiromichi Oto (Chief Engineer, Architecture Lab). Railway Technical Research Institute 185-8540 Kokubunji-shi, Hikari-cho 2-8-38, TOKYO, JAPAN. Aoki san kindly translated refs 7 & 8.

[11] Henderson L. F. The Statistics of Crowd Fluids. Nature 229 (1971) pg 381. 

[12] Henderson L. F. Sexual differences in human crowd motion. Nature 240 (1972) pg 252.

[13] Helbing, D. Correlated Motion of Pedestrians in New Directions in Theoretical Biology (ed. T. Vicsek). Lecture Notes in Biological Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest. 1998.

[14] Helbing, D. A Fluid-dynamic model for the movement of Pedestrians. Complex systems 6 (1992) pages 391-415

[15] Helbing, D, Treiber. M. Gas-kinetic-based Traffic model explaining observed hysteretic phase transition Physical Review Letters 81 (1998) 14

[16] Helbing, D, Treiber. M. Jams, Waves and Clusters. Science 282 (1998)

[17] Helbing, D. Modelling the evolution of human trail systems. Nature 388 (1997)

[18] Helbing, D. Self-organisation phenomena in pedestrian crowds in Self-Organization of Complex Structures: From Individual to Collective Dynamics (ed. F. Schweitzer). Gordon and Breach, London.569-577

[19] Helbing, D. Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Physical Review E, May (1995).

[20] Private communication between G. Keith Still and Dirk Helbing.

[21] Pauls, J. Calculating Evacuation Times for Tall Buildings. Fire Safety Journal 12 (1987) National Council of Canada and BUSI Building Safety Institute.

[22] Pauls, J. Movement of People. SFPE Handbook of fire Protection Engineering. (1988). National Council of Canada and BUSI Building Safety Institute.

[23] Galea E.R. The numerical simulation of aircraft evacuation and it's application to aircraft design and certification. Paper No. 97/IM/28. CMS Press. The Fire Safety Engineering group. Centre for Numerical Modelling and Process Analysis, University of Greenwich. Wellington Street. London SE18 6PF.

[24] Galea E.R. Use of mathematical modelling in fire safety engineering, Paper No 97/IM/25. CMS Press. The Fire Safety Engineering group. Centre for Numerical Modelling and Process Analysis, University of Greenwich. Wellington Street. London SE18 6PF. 

[25] Paulsen, T with Soma, H., Schneider, V. Wilklund, J. and Lovas, G. Evaluation of simulation models of evacuation from complex spaces. . SINTEF Report STf75 A95020 June 1995 (ISBN 82-595-8583-9)

[26] Cohen, E. Simulation of Human Flow with Particle Systems. ArSciMed. 07 Rue de Bercy, 75012 Paris France. Description of the methodology behind their software, now withdraw from publication.

[27] Private communication between G. Keith Still and Dr. Eyal Cohen and various representatives of Animation Science.

[28] Penn, A.Vaughan. L. Pedestrian movement and Spacial Design. Passenger Terminal (1995). Print available from Bartlett School of Architecture, University College of London. London. UK.

[29] Melinek. SJ, Booth, S. An analysis of evacuation times and the movement of crowds in buildings. Fire Research Station. CP 96/75 (1975). 

[30] Acheson. D.J. Elementary Fluid Dynamics. Page 51. Clarendon Press, Oxford. (1990) 

[31] Thompson, P. Marchant. EW. Modelling Techniques for Evacuation. Engineering for Crowd Safety (Ed Smith RA, Dickie J) Elsevier. (1993) ISBN 0 444 899200.

[32] Inquiry by the Rt Hon Lord Justice Taylor. The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster 15 April 1989, Interim Report Cm 765. IMSO, London.

[33] Inquiry by the Rt Hon Lord Justice Taylor. The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster 15 April 1989, Final Report Cm 962. IMSO London.

[34] The Rt. Hon. Lord Justice Stuart-Smith. Scrutiny of evidence relating to the Hillsborough Football Stadium disaster. Report Cm 3878. Feb 1998. The Stationary Office ISBN 0101387822 

[35] Guide to Fire Precautions on existing British Rail Surface Stations. Internal document on Fire Safety Engineering obtained from the Fire Training College, Morton-on-Marsh, Gloscester.1993. 

[36] London Underground Limited. Internal document on safety in stations. Safety Document VPSPGREV(a) March 1993.

[37] Quote from Dr John Habgood, Archbishop of York, preaching at the Hillsborough Memorial Service on 23 April 1989. 

[38] Pheasant. S. Bodyspace. Taylor and Francis. 1998 (ISBN 0748403264). ErgoBase from the Biomechanics Corporation of America, Inc. is database of the world population sizes, dimensions and aerobic work from Bodyspace. 

[39] First Tuesday Report on the Hillsborough Disaster - Yorkshire Television. 1990. Home Office Emergency Planning College, Easingwold.

[40] Canter, D. (Ed) Fires and Human Behaviour Foulton Publishers, London. 1990 (ISBN 1853461059 - now out of print) 

[41] Canter, D. Behaviour of People in Fire Situations: Possibilities for Research, BRE Document CP 11/76. (1985).

[42] Canter. D Studies of Human Behaviour in Fire: Empirical results and their implications for Education and Design. BRE Document 61 (1985).

[43] Sime J. Crowd Safety Management and Communications in Disasters. MoSHE. 1992 Available from the Building Research Establishment. Borehamwood or from JSA Research Consultants, Goldalming, Surrey.

[44] Sime J.& Kimura. Exit Choice Behaviour during the Evacuation of Two Lecture Theatres Portsmouth Polytechnic. Internal Document. 

[45] Sime J. Human behaviour in Fires Summary Report. JSA Research Consultants, Research Report 45 (1992). Central Fire Brigades Advisory Council

[46] Sime J. Human behaviour in Emergencies. JSA Research Consultants. Research Report 45. (1992) Joint Committee on Fire Research.

[47] Sime J, Proulx. G. To prevent 'Panic' in an underground emergency: Why not tell people the truth? Published in Fire Safety Science, Proceedings of the third International Symposium. (1991). IAFSS. Hemisphere Publishing Corp. London/New York. 

[48] Braess, D. ÜÜber ein Paradoxon aus der Verkehrsplanung. Unternehmenforschung 12 (1968), 258-268

[49] by Mark Wainwright.

[50] Ketchell, N, Cole, S. et. al. The EGRESS code for human movement and behaviour in emergency evacuations in Engineering for Crowd Safety 1993 Elsevier. (Ed Smith RA, Dickie J) ISBN 0 444 899200.

[51] Predtechenskii, W. M and Milinskii, A. I, (Stroiizdat, Moscow, 1962) Translation. Amerind Publishing Co. New Delhi 1978

[52] Stadia & Arenas 2000, Stadia and Arenas: Development, design and management. 16-17th June 1999. London Arena. The Concrete Society

[53] Clifford. P. Tynecastle football stadium crowd movement simulation. Stadia and Arenas: Development, design and management. Stadia & Arenas 2000, 16-17th June 1999. London Arena. The Concrete Society

[54] Private communication between G. Keith Still and John. J. Fruin.

[55] Authors observations for events during 1994-2000

[56] White, F, M. Fluid Mechanics. Pg 305. Hagen and Poiseuille in 1840 both establish the pressure drop law. The average velocity in laminar flow is one-half the maximum velocity. McGraw Hill, London. ISBN 0070665257.

[57] Still G. K. New Computer system can predict human behaviour response to building fires. Fire 84 (January 1993), 40-41

[58] Still G. K. New Insights into Crowd Behaviour - It's Fractal. Focus November (1994).

[59] Still G. K. The Secret Life of crowds. Focus (June 1996)

[60] Still G. K. Simulating Egress using Virtual Reality - a perspective view of simulation and design. IMAS Fire Safety on Ships symposium (May 1994).

[61] Still G. K. Towering Inferno New Scientist (Supplement April 1993).

[62] Still G. K. Last word, mind the gap. New Scientist (March 20th 1999).

[63] Bonbeau, E, et. al. Adaptive task allocation inspired by a model of division of labour in social insects. Sante Fe Institute (1995). working paper 98-01-004 

[64] Bonbeau, E, et. al. Cooperative transport by ants and robots. Sante Fe Institute.(1999). working paper 99-01-008

[65] Bonbeau, E, et. al. Evolving Ant Colony Optimization. Sante Fe Institute, working paper 99-01-009

[66] Bonbeau, E, et. al. Response threshold reinforcement and division of labour in insect societies. working paper 99-01-006

[67] Gutowitz, H. Artificial-Life Simulators and their Applications. Sante Fe Institute. 30th Jan 1995 and Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles. Laboratoire d'Electronique, 10 rue Vauquelin 75005 Paris, France.

[68] Sole, RV. et. al. Emergent behaviour in insect societies: Global Oscillations and computation. Springer Series in Synergetics, Vol. 62, Interdisciplinary Approaches to Nonlinear Complex systems (1993)

[69] Sole, RV. et. al. Collective-Induced Computation Sante Fe Institute. working paper 96-08-070

[70] Miramontes, O. Collective behaviour of random-activated mobile cellular automata. Physica D 63 (1993) 145-160

[71] Goodwin, B. How the leopard changed its spots. Touchstone. (ISBN 0-684-80451-4) 1996

[72] Sole, RV. et. al. Emergent behaviour in insect societies: Global Oscillations and computation. Springer Series in Synergetics, Vol. 62, Interdisciplinary Approaches to Nonlinear Complex systems (1993)

[73] Marin, J. Macro-evolutionary Algorithms: a New Optimization Method on Fitness Landscapes. working paper 98-11-108

[74] Judd S. Multiple stored views and landmark guidance in ants. Nature 392 (1998)

[75] Bunday, B. Basic Linear Programming. Arnold, London,1985. (ISBN 0713135093)

[76] Reynolds, C. W. Competition, Coevolution and the Game of Tag. From the boids website

[77] Reynolds, C. W. Flocks, Herds, and Schools: A distributed behavioural model. Proceedings of SIGGRAPH 1987 in Computer Graphics Volume 21, number 4, July (1987). Pp 24-34

[78] Reynolds, C. W. Not Bumping into things. Notes on obstacle avoidance for the course on Physically Based Modelling at SIGGRAPH August (1988). Atlanta, Georgia.

[79] Kendik, E. Methods of design for means of egress: Towards a Quantitative Comparison of National Code Requirements. Fire Safety Science. Proceedings of the first International Symposium. Hemisphere Publishing Corp. Washington (1986) pp 497-511

[80] Kendik, E. Assessment of Escape Routes in Building and a design method for calculating Pedestrian Movement. Society of Fire Protection Engineers Technology Report 85-4 (1985). Hemisphere Pub. Corp

[81] Video footage of the 1994 FA Cup Final - compilation of various ingress, half-time and egress scenes from Wembley Stadium.

[82] References on page 28 of the Taylor Interim Report [1] is the interim Report produced for the Minister of Housing and Local government in 1969. Mr Justice Popplewell. The quotation was taken from the Taylor report. 

[83] Popplewell. Committee of Inquiry into Crowd Safety and Control at Sports Grounds. Final Report. Cmnd 9710 Jan (1986)

[84] Private communication between G. Keith Still and Dr. Jonathan Sime.

[85] Hanna, J. Emergency Preparedness guidelines for mass, crowd-intensive events Emergency Preparedness 614.88 Han Canada. Sept (1995)

[86] Proulx, G. et. al. Evacuation Times and Movement in Office Buildings National Research Council of Canada, Internal report 711 (1996)

[87] Proulx, G. Review of Evacuation Strategies for Occupants with Disabilities. National Research Council of Canada. Internal Report 712 (1996)

[88] Cormen,. T. Introduction to Algorithms. MIT Press, London. (1985) p335. The 0-1 Knapsack and fractional knapsack problem. (ISBN 9780262530910).

[89] Press. W. H, Saul, A. T, Vetterling, W. T, Flannery, B. P. Numerical recipes in C. Cambridge (1992). p394 - Minimization or Maximization of a function. (ISBN 0521431085)

[90] Williams H. P. Model Solving in Mathematical Programming. Wiley (1993) (ISBN 0471937223) 

[91] Toner, J. and Tu, Y, Flocks, Herds and Schools: A quantitative theory of flocking Physical Review E. Volume 58 October (1998) Number 4

[92] Gross, D. Fundamental of Queuing Theory (third edition). Wiley-Inter science (ISBN 0471170836)

[93] Main. R. Ergodic Theory and Differentiable Dynamics Springer-Verlag (ISBN 3540152784)

[94] Canetti. E Crowds and Power. Penguin (1992) ISBN 0140184309

[95] Marsden A. Quotation from Crowd and Passenger Behaviour Seminar. April (1994). Copy available from Alan Marsden Consulting Associates. 24 Buckingham Way, Timperley. Altrincham, Cheshire, WA15 6PQ

[96] Blue, V. Adler, J. Cellular automata micro simulation of bi-directional pedestrian flows. Transportation Research Record, Journal of the transportation Research Board 1678, (2000), pp 135-141

[97] Schelhorn, T, O’Sullivan D. et. al. Streets: An agent-based pedestrian model. CASA paper 9. April (1999)

[98] HSE publication. Managing Crowds Safely. ISBN 0-7176-1834-X

[99] HSE publication. Safety Guidance: for streets, carnival, processions and large-scale performances. ISBN 0-9544892-1-7

Other model related papers

Al-Balbissi, A. H., Aboul-Ela, M. T. and Sammour, S. (1990) Relationship Between Child Pedestrian Accidents and City Planning in Zarqa, Jordan, Transportation Research Record 1281, 112-116.

Aiba, T., Kajzer, J., Mizuno, K. (1998) Computer simulation model for pedestrian-vehicle impact, Proc of the 10íth Bioengineering, Conference. Hiroshima, Japan, January 23-25. JSME., pp. 112- 113, (in Japanese)

AlGadhi,S.A.H.and Mahmassani,H.S. Modelling Crowd Behavior And Movement: Application to Makkah Pilgrimage. Proc. 11th International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory. M. Koshi(ed.), Yokohama, Japan July 1990. pp 59-78.

AlGadhi,S.A.H.and Mahmassani,H.S. (1991) Simulation Of Crowd Behavior And Movement: Fundamental Relations And Applications.Transportation Research Record1320, pp. 260-268.

Antonakos, C. L. (1995) Nonmotor Travel in the 1990 Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey, Transportation Research Record 1502, 75-82.

Amponsah,F., Turner,J., Grieco,M., Kwablah,A. and Guitink,P. (1996) Commercial Use of Nonmotorized Transport: Evidence from Accra, Ghana, Transportation Research Record 1563, 1-8.

Blue, V.J. and Adler, J.L. (2000) Cellular Automata Microsimulation of Bidirectional Pedestrian Flows. Transportation Research Board1678,135-141.

Blue, V.J. and Adler, J. L., (1998). Emergent Fundamental Pedestrian Flows From Cellular Automata Microsimulation, Transportation Research Record1644, 29-36.

Blue, V.J. and Adler, J.L., (1999) Using Cellular Automata. Microsimulation to Model Pedestrian Movements. Proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Transportation and Traffic Theory, A. Ceder (ed.) Elsevier Science Ltd. July 1999, pp. 235-254

Baltes, M. R. (1998) Descriptive Analysis of Crashes Involving Pedestrians in Florida, 1990-1994, Transportation Research Record 1636, 138-.

Benekohal, R. (1991) Procedure for Validation of Microscopic Traffic Flow Simulation Models, Transportation Research Record1320, pp.190-202

Beckwith,D.M. and Hunter-Zaworski,K.M. (1998) Passive Pedestrian Detection at Unsignalized Crossings, Transportation Research Record 1636, 96-103.

Bell, D.D. and Kuranami,C. (1994) Nonmotorized Vehicles in Hanoi and Phnom Penh: Existing Situation and Options for Improvement,Transportation Research Record 1441, 93-100.

Bell,D.D. and Kuranami,C. (1995) Nonmotorized Vehicles in Metropolitan Manila: Return of the Pedicabs, Transportation Research Record 1487, 90-98.

Coffin, A. and Morrall, J. (1995) Walking Speeds of Elderly Pedestrians at Crosswalks, Transportation Research Record 1487, 63-67.

Davis, G. A. (1998) Method for Estimating Effect of Traffic Volume and Speed on Pedestrian Safety for Residential Streets,Transportation Research Record 1636, 110-115.

Ercolano,J.M., Olson, J.S. and Spring, D. M. (1997) Sketch-Plan Method for Estimating Pedestrian Traffic for Central Business Districts and Suburban Growth Corridors, Transportation Research Record 1578, 38-47.

Fruin, J.J. (1971) Designing for Pedestrians: A Level of Service Concept. Highway research Record355, 1-15.

Fruin, J.J. (1971). Pedestrian Planning and Design. Metropolitan Association of Urban Designers and Environmental Planners, Inc. New York.

Fazio, J. and Tiwari,G. (1995) Nonmotorized-Motorized Traffic Accidents and Conflicts on Delhi Streets, Transportation Research Record 1487, 68-74.

Gerilla, G.P., Evaluation of Pedestrian Facilities in central Business Districts: The case of Metro Manila, AIT Thesis no GT 94-34, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok.

Gipps, P.G. and Marksjo, B. (1985) A Micro-Simulation Model for Pedestrian Flows. Mathematics and Computers in Simulation27, pp. 95-105.

Helbing,D. (1991) A mathematical model for the behavior of pedestrians. Behavioral Science 36, 298-310.

Helbing,D. (1992) A fluid-dynamic model for the movement of pedestrians, Complex Systems 6, 391-415.

Helbing, D. (1992) Models for pedestrian behavior. in: Natural Structures. Principles, Strategies, and Models in Architecture and Nature, Part II. Sonderforschungsbereich 230. Stuttgart. pp. 93-98.

Helbing (1998) Pedestrian dynamics and trail formation: M. Schreckenberg and D. E. Wolf (eds.) Traffic and Granular Flow '97. Springer, Singapore. pp. 21-36.

Henderson, L.F. (1971) The statistics of crowds Fluids. Nature229, pp. 381-383.

Henderson, L. F. (1974) On the Fluid Mechanic of Human Crowd Motions, Transportation Research8, pp. 509-515.

Haritaoglu, I., Harwood, D. and Davis, L.S. (2000). W4: Real-time Surveillance of people and their activities, IEEE Transaction of Pattern Analysis and machine IntelligentVol. PAMI Vol 22 no 8, pp. 809-830.

Houten, R. V., Healey, K. , Malenfant, J. E. L. and Retting,R. (1998) Use of Signs and Symbols To Increase the Efficacy of Pedestrian-Activated Flashing Beacons at Crosswalks ,Transportation Research Record 1636, 92-95.

Hagishima, S., Kurose, S., Mitsuyoshi, K. (1987) Estimation of Pedestrian Shopping Trips in a Neighbourhood by Using a Spatial Interaction Model, Environment and Planning A, Vol.19,No.9 .

Henderson, L.F. and Lyons, D. J. (1972) Sexual differences in Human Crowds Motion. Nature240, pp. 353-355

Helbing, D. and Molnár, P. (1995) Social force model for pedestrian dynamics. Physical Review E 51, 4282-4286

Helbing, D and Molnar, P. (1997) Self-Organization Phenomena in Pedestrian Crowds, in: F. Schweitzer (ed.) Self-Organization of Complex Structures: From Individual to Collective Dynamics. Gordon and Breach. London pp. 569-577.

Helbing, D. and Molnár, P. (1998) Correlated motion of pedestrians. In: T. Vicsek (ed.) New Directions in Theoretical Biology (Lecture Notes in Biological Physics, Eötvös University, Budapest).

Helbing, D. and Molnár, P. (1998) Modeling and simulating pedestrian streams. French translation in: F. Boillot, M. Aron, and J.-P. Lebacque (eds.) Modélisation du Trafic. Actes du Groupe de Travail 1997 (INRETS, Arcueil Cedex).

Houten, R. V. , Malenfant, J. E. L., Houten, J. V. and Retting, R. A. (1997) Using Auditory Pedestrian Signals To Reduce Pedestrian and Vehicle Conflicts, Transportation Research Record 1578, 20-22.

Helbing, D., Molnar, P. Schweitzer, F. (1994) Computer Simulation of Pedestrian Dynamics and trail Formation, in Evolution of Natural Science, Sonderforschungsbereich 230. Stuttgart. pp 229-234.

Hook,W. (1994) Role of Non-motorized Transportation and Public Transport in Japan's Economic Success, Transportation Research Record 1441, 108-115.

Hook, W. (1995) Economic Importance of Non-motorized Transportation, Transportation Research Record 1487, 14-21.

Howe, J. (1995) Enhancing Non-motorized Transportation Use in Africa-Changing the Policy Climate, Transportation Research Record 1487, 22-26.

Helbing, D. and Schreckenberg, M. (1999) Cellular automata simulating experimental properties of traffic flows. Physical Review E 59, R2505-R2508

Helbing, D. Schweitzer, F. Keltsch, J. and Molnár P. (1997) Active walker model for the formation of human and animal trail systems.Physical Review E 56, 2527-2539.

Helbing, D. and Vicsek, T. (1999) Optimal Self-Organization. New Journal of Physics 1, 13.1-13.17.

Heisele, B.; Woehler, C. (1998) Motion-based recognition of pedestrians. Proceedings Fourteenth International Conference on Pattern Recognition. Vol. 2, pp. 1325 -1330.

Institute of Transportation Engineers (1994). Manual of Transportation Engineering Studies. Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Johnson, C. D. (1997) Pedestrian Fatalities on Interstate Highways: Characteristics and Countermeasures, Transportation Research Record 1578, 23-29.

Jordan, G. (1998) Child Pedestrian-Car Crashes Near Schools Are a Small Percentage of Total Child Pedestrian Crashes in Philadelphia,Transportation Research Record 1636, 132-137.

Khoudour, L.; Duvieubourg, L.; Meunier, B.; Yue Feng Wan; Deparis, J.-P. (1996) A new fast algorithm using an adaptive structuring element applied to a counting device.Proceedings of International Conference on Image Processing, Vol. 3, pp. 57 -60.

McKenna, S.J., Jabri, S., Duric, Z. , Rosenfeld, A., Wechsler, H., (2000) Tracking Groups of People, Computer Vision and Image Understanding 80, pp. 42-56.

Kisko T.M. and Francis R.L. (1985) EVACNET+: A computer program to determine optimal building evacuation plans, Fire Safety Journal9 1985, 211-31 (2).

Kurose, S., Hagishima, S. (1995): Method for Identifying Accessibility Properties of Pedestrian Shopping Networks, J. Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol.2, No.2.

Khisty, C. J. (1990) Non-Euclidean Metrics in Nonmotorized Transportation, Transportation Research Record 1281, 102-111.

Kurose, S., Hagishima, S., Sakai, T., Oshima, K. (1994) A Comparative Study on the Road Networks of Premodern Cities by Using the Transition Matrix of Pedestrian Flow Model, Proc. Int. Sympo. on City Planning, Fukuoka & Kitakyushu, Japan

Kwon,Y.I., Morichi,S. and Yai,T. (1998) Analysis of Pedestrian Behavior and Planning Guidelines with Mixed Traffic for Narrow Urban Streets, Transportation Research Record 1636, 116-123.

Koushki, P.A., (1988) Walking characteristics in Central Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE vol 114 no 6, pp 735-744.

Kuranami,C. and Winston,B.P. (1994) Factors Influencing Ownership and Use of Nonmotorized Vehicles in Asian Cities, Transportation Research Record 1441, 116-124.

Kuranami,C., Winston, B.P. and Guitink, P. A. (1994) Nonmotorized Vehicles in Asian Cities: Issues and Policies, Transportation Research Record 1441, 61-70.

Lam, W. H. K., Morrall, J. F. and Ho,H. (1995) Pedestrian Flow Characteristics in Hong Kong, Transportation Research Record 1487, 56-62.

Lovas,G.G.(1994) Modeling and Simulation of Pedestrian Traffic Flow. Transportation Research 28B, pp. 429-443. [LSC+95] Liu, X.M., Shen,L. D., Chen,S.H. and Huang,J. (1995) Role of Nonmotorized Transportation in the Major Highway System in China, Transportation Research Record 1487, 35-40.

Lu, Y.J., Tang, Y.Y., Pirard, P., Hsu, Y.H. and Cheng, H.D. (1990). Measurement of Pedestrian Flow Data Using Image Analysis Technique, Transportation Research Record1281, pp. 87-96.

Lu, Y.J., Tang,Y.Y, Pirard,P. Hsu, Y.H. and Cheng, H.D. (1990) "Measurement of Pedestrian Flow Data Using Image Analysis Technique," Transportation Research Record 1281, pp. 87-96.

May,A.D. (1990) Traffic Flow Fundamental, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

Mori,H., Charkari,M. and Matsushita,T., (1994) On-line Vehicle and Pedestian Detection Based on Sign Pattern, IEEE Transactions on Industrial ElectronicsVol. 41 no 4, pp. 384-391.

Moudon, A. V.,. Hess, P. M., Snyder, M. C. and Stanilov, K. (1997) Effects of Site Design on Pedestrian Travel in Mixed-Use, Medium-Density Environments, Transportation Research Record 1578, 48-55.

Muramatsu, M., Irie, T. and Nagatani, T.(1999) Jamming Transition In Pedestrian Counter Flow, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics And Its Applications267 pp. 487-498

Matsushita and Okazaki (1991) A study of Simulation Model for Way Finding Behavior by Experiments in Mazes.Journal of Architecture, Planning. Environment Engineering. AIJ, No.429, pp. 51-59.

Nelson,A.C. (1995) Private Provision of Public Pedestrian and Bicycle Access Ways: Public Policy Rationale and the Nature of Public and Private Benefits, Transportation Research Record 1502, 96-104.

Navin, F.D. and Wheeler, R.J. (1969) Pedestrian flow characteristics, Traffic Engineering and Control,June 1969 pp 30-36. 

Oeding, D. (1963) Verkehrsbelastung und Dimensionierung von Gehwegen und anderen Anlagen des Fussgangerverkehrs, Strassenbau und Stasserverkehrstechnik, Heft 22, Bonn.

O'Flaherty, C.A. (ed.) (1997) Transport Planning and Traffic Engineering, Arnold, London.

Okazaki, S (1979) A Study of Pedestrian Movement in Architectural Space, Part 1: Pedestrian Movement by the Application on of Magnetic Models. Trans. of A.I.J., No.283, pp.111-119.

Okazaki, S (1979) A Study of Pedestrian Movement in Architectural Space Part 2: Concentrated Pedestrian Movement. Trans. of A.I.J., No.284, pp. 101-110.

Okazaki, S (1979) A Study of Pedestrian Movement in Architectural Space Part 3: Along the Shortest Path, Taking Fire, Congestion and Unrecognized Space into Account. Journal of Architecture, Planning. Environment Engineering. AIJ, No.285, pp. 137-147.

Older, S.J. (1968) The speed, density and flow of pedestrians on footway in shopping streets, Traffic Engineering and Control, Vol 10, no 4, pp. 160-163.

Okazaki, S and Matsushita S. (1981) A Study of Pedestrian Movement in Architectural Space Part 5: A Proubing walk and a guide walk by a guideboard. Journal of Architecture Planning. Environment Engineering. AIJ, No.302, pp.87-93.

Okazaki, S. and Matsushita, S. (1993) A study of simulation model for pedestrian movement with evacuation and queuing, Proceeding of the International Conference on Engineering for Crowd Safety, pp.271-280.

Oren, M.; Papageorgiou, C.; Sinha, P.; Osuna, E.; Poggio, T. (1997) Pedestrian detection using wavelet templates. Proceedings IEEE Computer Society Conference on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition. pp. 193 -199.

Okazaki, S and Yamamoto, C. (1981) A Study of Pedestrian Movement in Architectural Space Part 4: Pedestrian Movement Represented in Perspective.Journal of Architecture, Planning. Environment Engineering. AIJ, No.299, pp.105-113.

Pendakur, V. S., Badami, M. G. and Lin, Y. R. (1995) Nonmotorized Transportation Equivalents in Urban Transport Planning,Transportation Research Record 1487, 49-55.

Philpott, J. (1994) Women and Nonmotorized Transport: Connection in Africa Between Transportation and Economic Development,Transportation Research Record 1441, 39-43.

Papacostas, C.S. and Prevedouros, P.D. (1993) Transportation Engineering and Planning2ed, Prentice-Hall International, New Jersey.

Ricquebourg, Y. and Bouthemy, P. Real-Time Tracking of Moving Persons by Exploiting Spatio-temporal Image Slices, IEEE Transaction of Pattern Analysis and machine IntelligentVol. PAMI Vol 22 no 8, pp. 797-808.

Rouphail, N.M. and Eads,B.S. (1997) Pedestrian Impedance of Turning-Movement Saturation Flow Rates: Comparison of Simulation. Analytical. and Field Observations, Transportation Research Record 1578, 56-63.

Romer, R. T. and Sathisan, S. K. (1997) Integrated Systems Methodology for Pedestrian Traffic Flow Analysis, Transportation Research Record 1578, 30-37.

Sarkar, S. (1995) Evaluation of Different Types of Pedestrian-Vehicle Separations, Transportation Research Record 1502, 83-95.

Sarkar, S. (1995) Evaluation of Safety for Pedestrians at Macro- and Microlevels in Urban Areas, Transportation Research Record 1502, 105-118.

Staufer, C. and Grimson, W.E.L. Learning Patterns of Activity using real time tracking, IEEE Transaction of Pattern Analysis and machine IntelligentVol. PAMI Vol 22 no 8, pp. 747-757.

Shimazaki, T., Hokao,K., and Mohamed, S. S. (1994) Comparative Study of Transportation Modal Choice in Asian Countries,Transportation Research Record 1441, 71-83.

Seneviratne, P. N. and Javid, M. (1990) Estimating and Updating Flows on Pedestrian Facilities in the Central Business District,Transportation Research Record 1281, 97-101.

Schelhorn, T., O'Sullivan, D., Haklay, M. and Thurstain-Goodwin, M., (1999), STREETS: an agent-based pedestrian model, Proc. Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management Conference, Venice, 8-10 September.

Sullivan, M.J., Richards, C.A., Smith, C.E., Masoud, O., and Papanikolopoulos, N.P., (1995) Pedestrian tracking from a stationary camera using active deformable models. Proc. of the Intelligent Vehicles '95, pp. 90-95.

Tanaboriboon,Y.. Agustin,T. and Minfang, Y. (1995) Experiences in Developing Countries with Impact of Exclusive Lanes for Nonmotorized Transportation: Case Studies of China and Indonesia, Transportation Research Record 1487, 84-89.

Tidwell, J. E. and Doyle,D.P. (1995) Driver and Pedestrian Comprehension of Pedestrian Law and Traffic Control Devices, Transportation Research Record 1502, 119-.

Tanaboriboon, Y. and Guyano, J. (1991) Analysis of Pedestrian Movement in Bangkok, Transporation Research Record 1372.

Takamiya, S. and Hamada,S. (1998) Information Used by Visually Impaired People While Walking, Transportation Research Record 1636, 104-109.

Tanaboriboon, Y., Hwa S.S., Chor, C.H. (1986) Pedestrian Characteristics study in Singapore, Journal of Transportation Engineering, ASCE vol 112 no 3, pp 229-235

Tanaboriboon,Y. and Jing,Q. (1994) Chinese Pedestrians and Their Walking Characteristics: Case Study in Beijing, Transportation Research Record 1441, 16-26.

Tang,Y.Y, Lu, Y.J. and Suen,C.Y. (1991), "A robot vision system for pedestrian flow detection", Proc. Intelligent Robotic Systems and Visual Communications and Image Processing'91, Boston, USA, Nov. 10-15, Vol.1611, pp.630-641.

Thompson,P.A. and Marchant,E.W. (1995) A Computer Model the Evacuation of Large Building Populations. Fire Safety Journal 24,pp. 131-148.

Thompson,P.A. and Marchant,E.W. (1995) Testing and Application of the Computer Model 'SIMULEX'. Fire Safety Journal 24,pp. 149-166.

Turner, D., Nitzburg, M. and Knoblauch, R. (1998) Ultraviolet Headlamp Technology for Nighttime Enhancement of Roadway Markings and Pedestrians, Transportation Research Record 1636, 124-131.

Transportation Research Board (1985) Highway Capacity Manual, Special Report 204 TRB, Washington D.C.

Transport Research Laboratory (1993). Urban Road Traffic Survey, Overseas Road Note 11, Crown, Berkshire.

Tsuchikawa, M.; Sato, A.; Koike, H.; Tomono, A. (1995), A moving-object extraction method robust against illumination level changes for a pedestrian counting systemProceedings International Symposium on Computer Vision, 1995. pp. 563 -568.

Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2000) Review on Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model, Proceedings Japan Society of Civil Engineering Conference March 2000, Morioka, Japan, March 2000.

Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2000) Data Collection Method for Pedestrian Movement Variables, Dimensi Teknik Sipil - Journal of Civil Engineering Science and Technology, Vol 2 no 1, pp 43-48, March 2000

[TTI00c] Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2000)Tracking Algorithm for Microscopic Flow Data Collection, Proceeding of JSCE Student Conference, Sendai, Japan Sept 2000.

Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2000) Determination of Pedestrian Flow Performance Based on Video Tracking and Microscopic Simulations, Proceedings of Infrastructure Planning ConferenceVol 23 no 1, pp 639-642, Ashikaga, Japan, Nov 2000.

Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2001) Frame-Based Tracing of Multiple Objects, Proceeding of 2001 IEEE Workshop on Multi-Object Tracking, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 11-17, July 2001.

Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2001) Measuring Microscopic Flow Performance for PedestriansProceeding of the 9th World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul, Korea, July 2001.

Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2001) Tracking System to Automate Data Collection of Microscopic Pedestrian Traffic Flow, Proceeding of the 4th Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, Hanoi, Vietnam, October 2001.

Teknomo, K., Takeyama, Y. and Inamura, H. (2001) Microscopic Pedestrian Simulation Model to Evaluate "Lane-Like Segregation" of Pedestrian Crossing, Proceedings of Infrastructure Planning ConferenceVol 24 (208), Kochi, Japan, November 2001.

Virkler, M.R. (1998) Prediction and Measurement of Travel Time Along Pedestrian Routes ,Transportation Research Record 1636, 37-42.

Virkler, M.R. and Balasubramanian, R. (1998) Flow Characteristics on Shared Hiking/Biking/Jogging Trails, Transportation Research Record 1636,43-46

Virkler, M.R. (1998) Scramble and Crosswalk Signal Timing, Transportation Research Record 1636, 83-87.

Virkler,M.R. (1998) Signal Coordination Benefits for Pedestrians, Transportation Research Record 1636, 77-82.

Virkler, M.R. (1998) Pedestrian Compliance Effects on Signal Delay ,Transportation Research Record 1636, 88-91.

Wright, P.H., Ashford, N.J. and Stammers, R.J., (1997) Transportation Engineering Planning and Design 4th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Watts,J.M. (1987) Computer Models for Evacuation Analysis. Fire Safety Journal12 pp. 237-245.

Wigan, M., Richardson, A.J. and Brunton, P. (1998) Simplified Estimation of Demand for Nonmotorized Trails Using Geographic Information Systems , Transportation Research Record 1636, 47-55.

Yang J.K., Kajzer J., Rzymkowski C. (1994) Mathematical Modelling of Dynamic Response of the Lower Extremity in Car-Pedestrian Collision, Proc. Seminar on Biocybernetical and Biomechanical Aspects of Man-Machine Systems, Sept. 15-19, 1994, Warszawa. Lecture Notes of the ICB Seminars - Biomechanics, Int. Centre for Research and Training, Warszawa, Poland, pp.215-240.

Yasutomi, S.and Mori, H. (1994) A method for discriminating of pedestrian based on rhythm, Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ/GI International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems '94.'Advanced Robotic Systems and the Real World', IROS '94. Vol. 2, pp. 988 -995.

Yang J.K., Rzymkowski C., Kajzer J. (1993 ) Development and Validation of a Mathematical Breakable Leg Model, Proc. Int. IRCOBI Conference on The Biomechanics of Impacts, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, Sept. 8-10, 1993, pp.175-186.

Yu, Min Fang (1993) Level of Service Design Standards for Non-motorized Transport in Shanghai, China, AIT Thesis no GT 93-35, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok.

Title page and index

Chapter 1 - Introduction

Chapter 2 - Crowd problems and crowd safety

Chapter 3 - Crowd dynamics

Chapter 4 - Principles of a simulation

Chapter 5 - Legion (agent based simulation)

Chapter 6 - Validation of a computer model

Chapter 7 - Case study 1: Balham Station

Chapter 8 - Case study 2: Hong Kong Jockey Club

Chapter 9 - Conclusions

Other papers and references

© G. Keith Still.  All rights reserved. All images, videos, audio files and text are protected under international copyright law  You may not copy, modify or use any of the website content, in whole or in part, for any commercial or non-commercial purpose without permission.  Contact email