Module 13 - Crowd Simulations

In this module, we outline the problems with simulations and how simulations and real-time analysis can provide misleading results. We demonstrate a Progressive crowd collapse for a Premier League analysis (UK) and evaluate how these risks can be identified and mitigated at a football match. We show how progressive crowd collapse can occur at a concert and the trigger effect that leads to progressive crowd collapse. We illustrate the difference between the “Hollywood” crowd/model, the computer scientists crowd/model and the risk analysis modelling approach to simulations. we outline the application of crowd simulations for risk analysis with emphasis on the “good, the bad and the dangerous” use of crowd simulations for major event planning.

Lesson Topics

       (1)    Limits to crowd simulations (density limits)

       (2)    Real crowd density

       (3)    Crowd Collapse

       (4)    Pressure modelling

       (5)    Modelling crowd collapse

       (6)    Examples of crowd collapse at football matches

       (7)    Crowd collapse at concert

       (8)    Examples of different types of crowd simulations

       (9)    How to use a simulation for crowd safety and risk analysis


Sample slides


Click here for information on our eLearning version of “Introduction to Crowd Science


© G. Keith Still.  All rights reserved (worldwide). All images, videos, audio files and text are protected under international copyright law  You may not copy, modify or use any of the website content, in whole or in part, for any commercial or non-commercial purpose without permission.  Contact email